Osteoarthritis of the hip is a progressive degenerative-dystrophic disease based on functional and structural wear and tear of the hip joint.
At first, articular cartilage is withdrawn during this process, it becomes thinner, fragmented. As the pathological process develops, bone begins to form along the joint surface. Among the diseases of the musculoskeletal system, degenerative hip disease accounts for 39 to 48% of the cases.
As a rule, the disease develops in people over the age of 40, with equal frequency in both women and men. The only gender difference is that coxarthrosis of the hip is more severe in women than in men.
Distribution of primary and secondary arthritis of the hip joint. If primary hip arthritis is diagnosed, the cause of the process cannot be determined. In primary coxarthrosis, other joints can simultaneously participate in this process - the knee joint, the spine.
Secondary osteoarthritis of the hip occurs against the background of existing pathologies of the hip: congenital dislocation, Perthes disease, arthritis, trauma. Classification of coxarthrosis depends on the cause of the disease.
What is coxarthrosis?
- invisible - occurs due to age-related changes
- dysplasia - against congenital underdevelopment of the joints
- post-traumatic - after neck fracture, femoral head
- post-infectious - as a complication of purulent allergic processes in the joints
- inappropriate - as a result of long-term corticosteroid use
- metabolism - development due to metabolic disorder
- coxarthrosis of the hip joint - as a complication of Perthes disease
- idiopathic - cause unknown (primary).
Causes of hip osteoarthritis
- Constant overload of the joints (professional athletes, people who walk a lot, overweight people are at risk for the disease)
- joint injury (if you've previously broken a bone in your neck or the top of your hip, osteoarthritis may develop over time)
- genetic burden (if your loved one has metabolic problems, weak bone tissue, you will be at risk). However, there is no clear genetic relationship between patients with hip coxarthrosis.
- previously transferred arthritis - an inflammatory process in the (even treated) joint that can cause coxarthrosis in the future
- hormonal and metabolic changes - against the background of impaired metabolism, hip sclerosis may appear.
Symptoms of Osteoarthritis of the hip
The main symptoms of coxarthrosis are pain in the thighs and groin, limping, shortening of the affected leg, and thigh muscle atrophy.
Depending on the severity of symptoms and the X-ray changes, there are three degrees of coxarthrosis or stages of the disease:
- Grade 1: pain in the joint area that appears only after excessive exertion and disappears with rest. Only small bony growths were identified on radiographs.
- Second degree: the pain becomes more intense, for the knee and groin. May occur even at rest. There is a change in gait. X-rays showed significant bone growth.
- Third degree: pain becomes a constant companion, can disturb even in dreams. The patient can only move with a cane. Radiographically, extensive bony growth can be identified, deformity of the femoral head, in the superior-external part, the joint space is virtually undefined.
Treatment of hip arthritis
Coxarthrosis is a disease that gradually leads to disability for the patient. That is why the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip should take place under the close supervision of an experienced doctor. It is the doctor who will consider the severity of the disease to choose the right treatment regimen to help you return to normal activities.
The first step in treatment is to "unload" the diseased joint: you need to reduce motor activity, choose an auxiliary means of mobility (for example, a cane).
The next step is drug therapy: analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vasodilators, chondroprotectors.
If the disease has gone far, an arthroplasty - hip replacement is required. Thanks to such surgeries, patients who have lost hope of being able to move independently can live comfortably and independently again.
The outcome of the disease largely depends on the patient himself: whether he strictly adheres to the doctor's recommendations, whether he consents to the operation. Unfortunately, coxarthrosis of the hip is a progressive process. And a successful victory in the fight against this disease is only the result of the patient's persistent work.
Prevention of dry joints of the hip (coxarthrosis)
Any disease is easier to prevent than to treat. How to prevent hip osteoarthritis? Specific prevention of coxarthrosis has not been developed. However, there is no need to give up and let things take their course. There are a few general guidelines, the observance of which will help prevent coxarthrosis:
Rule one: strictest weight control. Overweight people are not only at risk of developing high blood pressure.
Similarly, the extra weight puts an increased load on the hip joint. Therefore, the slogan "lose more weight" is not superfluous in the prevention of coxarthrosis.
Rule two: adequate physical activity. It just so happens that the symptoms of hip arthritis that often appear in professional athletes involve running and jumping.
Excessive load on the hip causes the hip to wear down, with age, professional athletes can develop coxarthrosis. That is why you should not abuse walking. Any physical activity should be quantified.
Rule three: if you have metabolic disorders, you should try to make up for them. It just so happens that metabolic disorders can cause many diseases simultaneously, including coxarthrosis.
That is why any metabolic disorder requires competent treatment. Regulates your metabolism - significantly reduces your risk of coxarthrosis.
Please note that preventing coxarthrosis is not possible without the right career choice. If you have a history of congenital underdevelopment of the hip, broken neck, femoral head, purulent disease in the hip joint, you are at risk.
You should not tempt fate. Jobs that involve increased physical activity are taboo for you. But the "sedentary" specialty suits you best.
Regular swimming is the best prevention of coxarthrosis. After all, it is during your time in the water that the joints are not dismounted, their resting pattern.
The primary prevention of coxarthrosis is the timely detection, treatment, and monitoring of patients with congenital hip malformations.
Secondary prevention of coxarthrosis includes prompt diagnosis of the initial extent of coxarthrosis, treatment of the primary manifestations, and also in slowing further progression of the disease. Timely detection and early treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip can positively affect the prognosis of the disease.